Reducing Total Ownership Cost (TOC) and Schedule
Systems Engineering and Systems Management Transformation
Dr. Barry Boehm
This project proposes to research and develop systems and software technology that enables future DoD mission- critical systems to more cost-effectively cope with increasingly challenging threats. It proposes to address future challenges in the context of the four SERC Research Council roadmaps. Digital Engineering addresses Life Cycle Maintainability and DoD Systems of Systems Interoperability; Security is extended to include Safety; AI/Autonomy and Velocity are also directly addressed.
The project also builds on the Systems Quality Ontology developed in SERC RTs 46 through 209, along with anticipatory technology for improving Maintainability during development, such as Maintainability Opportunity Trees, technology for identifying a software system’s technical debt such as the Software Qualities Understanding by Analysis of Abundant Data (SQUAAD), and addressing non-technical sources of technical debt. These have led to their experimental use in Navy applications and discussions and demonstrations for FFRDCs such as Mitre for SQUAAD and Aerospace for natural language processing to determine root causes of software problem reports, and our lead participation in the recent SERC workshop on the use of Continuous Development and Deployment (CD&D) on future DoD systems and systems of systems. A recent example of SQUAAD scalability was the analysis of technical debt increases and decreases of 1.3 billion lines of code across 5 to 15 years of software development and maintenance of Google, Apache, and Netflix code. More details on SQUAAD and other methods and tools needed for DoD systems are provided in our recently-published Wiley Systems Engineering journal article (Boehm-Behnamghader, 2019).
Discussions with MITRE and other potential users indicated that a version of SQUAAD based on a private cloud would be needed for classified work, and user-interface features developed for use by non-specialists. This will be a main task, along with identifying potential early users, supporting their use, and addressing their usage suggestions. Other tasks will include research and experimentation in extending SQUAAD to identify additional sources of technical debt or deficiencies in security, safety, autonomy, interoperability, and velocity.
Considerable additional research and experimentation will be needed to address the ontology and tools support for assessing deficiencies in security, safety, autonomy, interoperability, and velocity, and to identify synergies and conflicts among the additional system qualities. This will begin during this effort, but will likely be main potential for optional follow-on research.
A good head start on some of the security aspects has been the research of Ph.D. student Elaine Venson on estimating the cost of various levels and aspects of computer security. Her paper on the topic was one of the top papers in the recent Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement conference (Venson-Alfayez-Gomes-Figueredo-Boehm, 2019), and will be presented at the upcoming SERC Doctoral Student Forum in November.
- Conference Paper - Non-Technical Sources of Technical Debt and the Software Maintenance Readiness Framework (SMRF)
- Conference Paper - Early Phase Cost Models for Agile Software Processes in the US DoD
- Conference Paper - Life Cycle Resilience Depends on Maintainability
- Dissertation - Utilizing a Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach to Develop a Combat System Product Line
- Poster - RT-137 Ilities Tradespace and Affordability Resource Analysis Based on System Architecture Behaviour
- Poster - RT-137 System Qualities Tradespace and Affordability
- Poster - RT137 ITAP: SysML Building Blocks for Cost Modeling
- Poster - Engineered Resilient Systems: Tradespace Tools Research
- Poster - COSYSMO 3.0: An Extended, Unified Cost Estimating Model for Systems Engineering